A cough is the body’s natural way of responding to irritation in your respiratory tract. When specialised sensors in your airways detect an irritant such as smoke, dust or pollution, it triggers a cough reflex that causes the muscles in your airways to contract and pushes a burst of air out through your airways in an attempt to remove the cause of the irritation – this is a cough.
A dry cough is when you cough without bringing up any mucous or phlegm and can be irritating for your throat. It is a very common type of cough that can be caused by an infection, asthma, environmental irritant or irritation caused by acid reflux. It may also be a side effect of certain medications such as ACE inhibitors, used to treat high blood pressure. A constant dry cough is the result of your cough reflex becoming more sensitive than usual.
Start small by taking it easy, getting good amounts of sleep, and ensuring that you’re eating and drinking well as this will all help. Going out in cold weather can cause you to cough more, so wrap up warm. You can try some simple over-the-counter treatments to help with your symptoms.
Healthwords pharmacists have put together some of our favourite medications that can be purchased to help with a dry cough. (Over-the-counter cough and cold medicines shouldn't be given to children under the age of six, and children aged 6 to 12 should only use them on the advice of a pharmacist or doctor.) A homemade remedy containing honey and lemon is likely to be just as useful and safer to take but remember that honey shouldn't be given to babies under the age of one because of the risk of infant botulism.
These treatments will not stop your cough but may help to relieve your symptoms. Paracetamol or ibuprofen can be used to relieve pain in your throat or respiratory muscles from coughing. Simple Linctus or a hot honey and lemon drink can soothe your throat, and Bronchostop, cough sweets or lozenges work in the same way, if you're out and about.
Dextromethorphan can help suppress the urge to cough, which might help if you’ve got a phone call to make or a meeting to attend.
It is relatively common to find that your dry cough is worse at night and is affecting your sleep. This is likely due to the reduction in saliva you produce which leads to your throat becoming drier and more sensitive to triggering your cough reflex.
If this is the case, you can try the previous simple remedies, and add a sleep aid such as the antihistamine diphenhydramine. The cough suppressant dextromethorphan can often be found in combination with diphenhydramine to aid with relieving night time coughing.
Most dry coughs get better by themselves within two weeks with rest, plenty of fluids, and throat-soothing treatments as necessary. In some cases, symptoms can last for up to three weeks. You should book a routine appointment to discuss with your doctor if your cough is not improving after two weeks, you have asthma or you are concerned about your symptoms.
If your symptoms are severe and not responding to pharmacy medications, you are finding it hard to catch your breath, difficult to maintain fluids or to bring your fever down with medication, you are coughing up blood, or you are a smoker and are suddenly losing weight, speak to your doctor urgently or call 111 outside of working hours.
If you are immunocompromised because of medication or a condition, or you have long-term medical conditions such as diabetes, heart, lung, kidney, or neurological illnesses, speak to your doctor.
Your doctor will listen to your concerns and symptoms, and take note of other medical conditions, medications and any family history. They will take your vital signs, including breathing rate, heart rate, oxygen content in your tissues and blood pressure. They will listen to your heart and chest and may look at your throat. They may send you for further investigations, such as a chest X-ray, blood tests, take any mucus sample or throat swab, and they will refer you to a hospital team if necessary.
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