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How long do COVID symptoms last?

Dr Karen Martin
Reviewed by Dr Karen MartinReviewed on 19.10.2023 | 4 minutes read

Many factors influence the range in recovery from COVID-19, some are predictable if they relate to other health conditions or age, and some are unpredictable, and we can’t say why some suffer severe or ongoing symptoms.

Most of us know someone who has no symptoms but tests positive. Others have a prolonged recovery due to complications such as clots, strokes, or heart attacks. Those who required intensive care unit support while they had COVID-19, and needed intubation or ventilation, will also take a long time to recover. Research shows that most people have made a full recovery 12 weeks after they get initial symptoms.

A cough from any viral or bacterial infection can persist for up to 3 weeks and doesn’t warrant further investigations if you’re otherwise well and have no underlying lung conditions. We expect your cough to improve during this time, though. Similarly, a sore throat usually lasts about 7 days from any viral infection, including COVID, and fevers should have resolved within the first few days.

Some people are left in the middle, where a few weeks later, they still have a bit of a cough or chest tightness, or going back to work or studies feels very effortful, and they’re not back to full strength. Many report symptoms waxing and waning, where a week or two after initial symptoms, they think they’re recovered, and then suffer a day where they feel set back by symptoms again.

Could this be long COVID?

Long COVID, or post-COVID syndrome as it’s now termed, typically lasts for longer than 12 weeks. Still, if you are worried that your symptoms are prolonged or affecting your daily activity, you should contact your doctor for further review and support.

Evidence suggests that being fully vaccinated against COVID, including getting the booster, can help prevent severe disease and make symptoms milder. You are more likely to get cold or flu-like symptoms than severe cough and breathing difficulties. Emerging data suggests it’s also protective against long COVID.

What will my doctor do?

Your doctor will take a history and ask you about your initial symptoms and the symptoms that persist. They will ask you about your medical history and any regular medication you take, and they may decide to perform some basic investigations, such as taking your vital measurements (blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturations), request blood tests, ECG of your heart, and maybe a chest X-ray.

If your doctor thinks you are suffering from long COVID, they may consider referring you to a local specialized clinic. Your doctor may ask a lengthy series of questions about symptoms and some tests specific to each symptom to better inform the clinician when you are seen. For example, if you have breathing difficulty, they may ask you to sit and stand as often as possible in a minute, taking count and noting your oxygen saturations.

Your doctor can also discuss with you any amendments that may help symptoms at work or consider supporting more sick leave if you feel unable to work or study.

How can I help my symptoms?

Doctors have come to expect the unexpected from COVID, and persistent symptoms can be wide-ranging, so everyone’s experience is different. As such, all symptoms should be managed according to their effect on you.

If you suffer immense fatigue, it won’t help to push through to return to work or meet a deadline or have lots of things on the go. You must listen to your body and rest to allow it to recuperate. You may need more time off work or to reduce the number of activities to the minimum.

As always, you can nurture yourself with regular, healthy balanced meals and keep well-hydrated, and introduce light exercises such as a walk outdoors and some relaxation time – just what you can manage, but push yourself to increase this as your health improves.

It’s not had a lot of media attention, but specialists tell us that COVID infection has caused lots of mental health problems, from difficulty concentrating or remembering to anxiety and depression. If this applies to you, make sure you book an appointment with your doctor to discuss how you’re feeling and how they can help.

If you and your doctor think that your symptoms are negatively impacting your life, your doctor can decide to refer you to a long COVID clinic for further assessment and management.

What is the long COVID clinic?

Post-COVID Care Centers (PCCC) cater to those suffering from prolonged symptoms since their initial infection – the criteria is more than 3 months.

It is managed by a team of healthcare professionals, including respiratory or allergy doctors and nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and mental health support workers. They are still learning about the long-term effects of COVID but are best poised to assess you and advise on strategies or medication that may help your recovery.

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This article has been written by UK-based doctors and pharmacists, so some advice may not apply to US users and some suggested treatments may not be available. For more information, please see our T&Cs.
Dr Karen Martin
Reviewed by Dr Karen Martin
Reviewed on 19.10.2023
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