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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Mohommed Essop-Adam
Reviewed by Mohommed Essop-AdamReviewed on 30.10.2023 | 10 minutes read

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition that can develop after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. Trauma, in this context, refers to an overwhelming experience that threatens physical harm or safety. It could result from various events, such as accidents, natural disasters, violence, or military combat.

When a person goes through a traumatic event, their body and mind react in ways to protect them, releasing stress hormones like adrenaline. However, in some cases, the impact of the trauma can linger, leading to symptoms of PTSD. These symptoms can include intrusive memories, flashbacks, nightmares, severe anxiety, and avoidance of reminders of the trauma.

Stress is a significant factor in the development and exacerbation of PTSD symptoms. The body's stress response, designed to cope with immediate threats, can become dysregulated, leading to persistent feelings of fear, anxiety, and hypervigilance. This prolonged heightened arousal can contribute to emotional exhaustion and fatigue, impacting daily functioning and overall well-being.

Moreover, PTSD often coexists with other mental health conditions, such as depression. Research suggests that up to half of individuals with PTSD also experience symptoms of depression. The combination of PTSD and depression can significantly impair quality of life, making it challenging to engage in daily activities, maintain relationships, and seek help.

Understanding PTSD and its associated challenges is crucial for individuals affected by this condition, as well as their loved ones and communities. Raising awareness and providing support can promote early intervention, reduce stigma, and improve access to effective treatments.

In the following sections, we will delve deeper into the nature of PTSD, explore strategies for managing symptoms, discuss preventive measures, and outline when to seek professional help. Whether you're personally navigating the complexities of PTSD or supporting someone who is, knowledge and empathy are invaluable tools in the journey towards healing and resilience.

What is PTSD?

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a complex mental health condition that can develop after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. While it's normal to feel upset and distressed after a traumatic experience, PTSD involves a prolonged or “chronic” and intense reaction that can significantly impact daily life.

Understanding Trauma

Trauma, in the context of PTSD, refers to an event that threatens physical harm or safety. This can include natural disasters, accidents, violent assaults, military combat, or any experience that overwhelms a person's ability to cope. Trauma can vary in intensity and duration, but what distinguishes it is its profound impact on an individual's sense of safety and well-being.

Symptoms of PTSD

PTSD manifests through a range of symptoms that can be grouped into four main categories:

  1. Re-experiencing - Individuals with PTSD may have intrusive memories of the traumatic event, including distressing thoughts, nightmares, or flashbacks where they feel as though they're reliving the experience.

  2. Avoidance - To cope with the distressing memories and emotions associated with the trauma, individuals with PTSD may avoid reminders of the event. This could involve avoiding certain places, people, activities, or even discussions about the traumatic experience.

  3. Negative changes in thinking and mood - PTSD can alter a person's beliefs about themselves, others, and the world around them. They may experience persistent negative thoughts, feelings of guilt or shame, loss of interest in activities they once enjoyed, and difficulty experiencing positive emotions.

  4. Changes in physical and emotional reactions - Individuals with PTSD often experience heightened arousal and reactivity, such as being easily startled, feeling tense or on edge, having difficulty sleeping or concentrating, and engaging in self-destructive behaviours.

Prevalence and Impact

PTSD can affect anyone, regardless of age, gender, or background. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately just under 1 in 25 people have PTSD at any given time. However, this figure may vary depending on factors such as the prevalence of trauma in a particular region and access to mental health care.

The impact of PTSD extends beyond individual suffering, affecting relationships, work, and overall quality of life. It can contribute to difficulties in interpersonal relationships, problems at work or school, substance abuse, and even physical health problems such as cardiovascular disease and chronic pain.

Common Complications of PTSD

Living with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can present various challenges beyond the core symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance, negative changes in thinking and mood, and changes in physical and emotional reactions. These complications can significantly impact an individual's well-being and quality of life.

1. Depression

Depression commonly co-exists with PTSD, with up to half of individuals experiencing symptoms of both conditions simultaneously. The relentless stress and emotional turmoil associated with PTSD can contribute to feelings of hopelessness, sadness, and worthlessness, characteristic of depression. Managing both PTSD and depression requires a comprehensive treatment approach that addresses the unique needs of each condition.

2. Anxiety

PTSD often overlaps with other anxiety disorders, such as generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. These conditions share common symptoms, including excessive worry, fear, and avoidance behaviours. The presence of multiple anxiety disorders can exacerbate the overall distress and impairment experienced by individuals with PTSD.

3. Substance Abuse

Many individuals with PTSD turn to substances like alcohol or drugs as a way to cope with their symptoms and numb their emotional pain. While substance use may provide temporary relief, it can ultimately worsen the symptoms of PTSD and lead to addiction. Addressing substance abuse in conjunction with PTSD treatment is essential for promoting long-term recovery and stability.

4. Relationship Problems

PTSD can strain relationships with family members, friends, and romantic partners. Symptoms such as emotional numbing, irritability, and avoidance of social situations can create barriers to intimacy and communication. Additionally, partners and loved ones may struggle to understand and support the individual with PTSD, leading to feelings of frustration and resentment on both sides.

5. Physical Health Issues

The chronic stress and physiological dysregulation associated with PTSD can have adverse effects on physical health. Research has linked PTSD to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal problems, chronic pain conditions, and autoimmune disorders. Addressing both the mental and physical aspects of PTSD is crucial for promoting holistic well-being.

5 ways to help manage PTSD

While living with PTSD can be challenging, some various strategies and interventions can help individuals cope with their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

1. Seek Professional Help

It's essential to reach out to a qualified mental health professional. This may be via your doctor. Therapies such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), and exposure therapy are effective in reducing PTSD symptoms.

2. Build a Support Network

Surround yourself with supportive friends, family members, or support groups who can offer understanding, encouragement, and practical assistance. Connecting with others who have experienced similar challenges can provide validation and reduce feelings of isolation.

3. Practice Self-Care

Prioritise self-care activities that promote relaxation, stress reduction, and emotional well-being. This may include exercise, mindfulness and meditation, creative outlets, spending time in nature, and engaging in enjoyable hobbies.

4. Establish Healthy Habits

Maintain a balanced lifestyle by prioritising healthy habits such as regular exercise, nutritious eating, adequate sleep, and avoiding substances that can exacerbate symptoms.

5. Be Patient and Persistent

Recovery from PTSD is a gradual process that takes time and effort. Be patient with yourself and acknowledge that setbacks are a normal part of the healing journey. Celebrate small victories and milestones along the way.

By taking proactive steps to manage PTSD and addressing any complications that arise, individuals can reclaim their lives and move forward with hope and resilience. Remember that healing is possible, and you are not alone in your journey towards recovery.

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When to See Your Doctor About PTSD

Recognising when to seek professional help for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a crucial step towards healing and recovery. While some individuals may hesitate to reach out due to stigma or feelings of shame, it's essential to understand that PTSD is a legitimate medical condition that can benefit from professional intervention.

1. Persistent Symptoms

If you're experiencing persistent symptoms of PTSD that interfere with your daily life, it may be time to consult a doctor. These symptoms can include intrusive memories, nightmares, flashbacks, avoidance of trauma reminders, adverse changes in thinking and mood, and changes in physical and emotional reactions.

2. Impaired Functioning

PTSD can significantly impair your ability to function in various areas of your life, including work, school, relationships, and social activities. If you find that your symptoms are interfering with your ability to meet your responsibilities and engage in activities you once enjoyed, seeking help is essential.

3. Emotional Distress

The emotional toll of PTSD can be overwhelming, leading to feelings of anxiety, depression, anger, guilt, and shame. If you're struggling to cope with your emotions or find yourself turning to unhealthy coping mechanisms such as substance abuse or self-harm, it's crucial to reach out for support.

4. Suicidal Thoughts

PTSD is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and behaviour. If you're experiencing thoughts of self-harm or suicide, it's essential to seek immediate. Here is a list of free services here in the UK.

  1. NHS 111: Dial 111 for urgent medical advice or access to mental health services.

  2. NHS Mental Health Services: Contact your local NHS mental health services for assessment and treatment options. You can find their contact information on the NHS website.

  3. Samaritans: Call 0116 123 (free, 24/7) for confidential emotional support if you're distressed or struggling to cope.

  4. Mind: Contact Mind's Infoline at 0300 123 3393 (Monday to Friday, 9 am to 6 pm) for information and support on mental health issues.

  5. Rethink Mental Illness: Call their advice and information line at 0300 5000 927 (Monday to Friday, 9:30 am to 4 pm) for practical advice and information on mental health issues.

  6. CALM (Campaign Against Living Miserably): Call 0800 58 58 58 (nationwide) or 0808 802 58 58 (London) for support with mental health issues, including suicide prevention (5 pm to midnight, 365 days a year).

  7. YoungMinds: If you're under 25, text YM to 85258 for free 24/7 support from trained volunteers.

5. Impact on Relationships

PTSD can strain relationships with family members, friends, and romantic partners. If your symptoms are causing conflicts in your relationships or your loved ones express concerns about your well-being, taking their feedback seriously and considering seeking help is essential.

What will your doctor do?

When you consult a doctor about PTSD, they will typically conduct a comprehensive evaluation to assess your symptoms, medical history, and any underlying factors contributing to your condition. Here's what you can expect during your visit:

1. Medical History

Your doctor will ask about your medical history, including any previous traumatic experiences, mental health conditions, and current symptoms. Be honest and open about your experiences, which will help your doctor develop an appropriate treatment plan.

2. Assessment

Your doctor will conduct a thorough assessment of your PTSD symptoms, including their frequency, severity, and impact on your daily life. They may use a standardised mental health assessment questionnaire and screening tools to gather information about your symptoms.

3. Examination

While there are no specific physical tests for PTSD, your doctor may perform a physical examination to rule out any underlying medical conditions that could be contributing to your symptoms.

4. Diagnostic Criteria

Your doctor will compare your symptoms to the diagnostic criteria for PTSD outlined in the most recent guidelines. To receive a diagnosis of PTSD, you must meet specific criteria related to the nature and duration of your symptoms.

5. Treatment Options

Your doctor will discuss treatment options tailored to your needs based on their assessment. This may include a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and self-care strategies.

6. Speaking Therapies

Talk therapy is a cornerstone of PTSD treatment. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) are two evidence-based therapies commonly used to treat PTSD.

7. Medication

In some cases, your doctor may prescribe medication to help alleviate symptoms of PTSD, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications. These medications can help manage symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia.

8. Self-Care Strategies

Your doctor will also guide self-care strategies to help you cope with your symptoms and improve your overall well-being. This may include stress management techniques, relaxation exercises, healthy lifestyle habits, and support resources.

9. Follow-Up Care

PTSD is a chronic condition that requires ongoing management and support. Your doctor will schedule regular follow-up appointments to monitor your progress, adjust your treatment plan as needed, and provide continuing support and encouragement.

10. Referrals

Depending on your needs, your doctor may refer you to other mental health professionals or support services, such as psychologists, psychiatrists, support groups, or community resources.


Living with PTSD is tough, but recovery is within reach. We've explored its origins, complications like depression and anxiety, and ways to manage it, from seeking help to self-care. Prevention and early intervention are essential. Remember, you're not alone. With support and treatment, a brighter future awaits. Reach out for help if needed. You can overcome PTSD and live a fulfilling life.

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Mohommed Essop-Adam
Reviewed by Mohommed Essop-Adam
Reviewed on 30.10.2023
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