Migraines can be debilitating to those who suffer from them, which is why it’s important to try and identify what factors could be triggering your migraine. The exact cause of migraines is not known but it is thought to be a mix of affected nerve signals, chemicals and blood vessels in the brain. The cause of this change in brain activity is not known, but could be genetic – which leads to you experiencing a migraine after encountering a specific trigger.
There are many possible triggers, and your doctor will likely ask you whether you have noticed certain things bring on your migraines. Some of the common causes include changes in routine, stress, hormones, environmental changes, too much time looking at screens, food and hydration and exercise.
We will go into more detail for some of the common ones in the next paragraphs.
Changes in routine: Changing sleep patterns, longer journeys, diet, and eating times. Many people complain of migraines occurring over the weekend, this could be due to sleeping for longer, drinking less caffeine or changes in stress levels
Stress: This is strongly linked with migraines and includes any sort of emotional shock. The migraine can even be triggered by lower stress levels which are particularly seen over the weekend (weekend headaches)
Hormones: Some women find their migraines begin during puberty and are linked with their menstrual cycle. Menopause is often the most difficult time for women with migraines.
Those who take contraceptives should also be cautious and speak to their doctor if they experience migraines while taking their medication.
Environment: High altitudes, weather changes, humidity, loud noises, flickering lights or glare can be triggers for migraines.
Screens: Similar to light exposure, although it has been questioned whether the presence of blue light with excessive screen exposure could be a migraine trigger.
Food: Certain foods can be a trigger. Some people will crave sweet foods before an attack and subsequently will conclude that sweet foods are the cause when it is more likely that craving sweet foods is a symptom of the onset of a migraine. However, foods containing tyramine are often linked to migraines (red wine and soft cheeses).
Additives: Common additives that people suspect may trigger their migraines are monosodium glutamate, nitrates, and aspartame.
Dehydration: As a general guide, you should aim to drink 8 glasses of water a day. Less than this, and it could be a contributory cause.
Exercise: Like with sleep, too much or too little can be a trigger, especially sudden vigorous exercise. Regular exercise, which is built up gradually (adequate warm-up and stretching), can help prevent a migraine.
If you are prone to migraines, it is wise to suspect everything could be a trigger until you have eliminated a specific factor by using a migraine trigger diary. In the diary, you could include details about the migraine attack and the day it occurred. Other things that may be useful for your doctor are:
It may be helpful to maintain this diary over several months to get a better idea of what your triggers could be. This diary would also be helpful for your doctor to better understand your migraines and if any treatment changes could be made.
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