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Probiotics and its Uses

Adil Naeem
Reviewed by Adil NaeemReviewed on 15.12.2023 | 8 minutes read

In this guide, we explore the uses of probiotics, beginning with their role in managing symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Moving beyond IBS health, probiotics are important in nurturing a flourishing gut microbiome, supporting digestive health, and avoiding a range of conditions, from digestive disorders to much more. Additionally, probiotics hold specific benefits for women's health, including reproductive health support, urinary tract infection prevention, and management of hormonal fluctuations across different life stages.

Probiotics for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder affecting the large intestine, characterised by symptoms like abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhoea, and constipation. For those grappling with the often unpredictable symptoms of IBS, finding effective relief can be a significant challenge. However, emerging research suggests that probiotics could offer a ray of hope in managing IBS symptoms and improving overall quality of life.

What is IBS, and Why is it Significant?

IBS is a chronic condition that can significantly impact an individual's daily life, causing discomfort, embarrassment, and disruption to normal activities. It's estimated to affect around 10-15% of the global population, making it one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The exact cause of IBS remains unclear, but factors such as altered gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, immune system dysfunction, and disturbances in the gut microbiota are believed to play a role in its development and progression.

The Role of Probiotics in IBS Management

Probiotics, often referred to as "good bacteria," are live microorganisms that confer health benefits when consumed in adequate amounts. While research into the use of probiotics for various health conditions is ongoing, there is growing evidence to suggest their potential efficacy in managing IBS symptoms.

Evidence Supporting Effectiveness

Several clinical studies have investigated the effectiveness of probiotics in alleviating symptoms associated with IBS. A meta-analysis published in the World Journal of Gastroenterology analysed the findings of multiple randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and concluded that certain strains of probiotics, particularly those belonging to the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genuses, demonstrated significant improvements in overall IBS symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits.

Recommended Probiotic Strains and Dosages

While the exact mechanisms by which probiotics exert their beneficial effects in IBS are still being figured out, it's believed that they may help restore gut microbial balance, modulate immune function, and enhance intestinal barrier integrity. Some of the commonly studied probiotic strains for IBS management include Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Saccharomyces boulardii.

Practical Considerations for Individuals with IBS

When considering probiotic supplementation for IBS management, it's essential to choose products containing strains most beneficial for you. Additionally, the dosage and duration of probiotic therapy may vary depending on individual factors such as symptom severity, microbiome composition, and overall health status. Consulting with your doctor or gastroenterologist can help you tailor probiotic therapy to meet your individual needs and maximise therapeutic outcomes.

Evidence Supporting the Effectiveness of Probiotics

Probiotics have gained considerable attention for their potential to promote gut health and alleviate digestive issues. But what does the evidence say about their effectiveness? Let's delve into the research to understand the science behind probiotics and their benefits.

Probiotics for Gut Health

Maintaining a healthy gut microbiome is crucial for overall well-being, and probiotics play a significant role in achieving this balance. Studies have shown that probiotics can help restore the natural balance of gut bacteria, which may be disrupted by factors such as diet, stress, illness, or antibiotic use.

Benefits of Probiotics for Maintaining a Healthy Gut Microbiome

The gut microbiome consists of trillions of microorganisms, including bacteria, that play essential roles in digestion, metabolism, immune function, and more. Probiotics, often called "good" or "friendly" bacteria, can populate the gut and contribute to a diverse and balanced microbiome.

Research suggests that probiotics can:

  1. Support Digestive Function - Certain probiotic strains, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, have been shown to help break down food, absorb nutrients, and regulate bowel movements, thereby supporting overall digestive health.

  2. Boost Immune Function - The gut microbiome interacts closely with the immune system, and probiotics may help strengthen the body's natural defences against harmful pathogens by enhancing immune function.

  3. Reduce Inflammation - Imbalances in the gut microbiota can lead to inflammation, which is associated with various chronic conditions. Probiotics have been found to modulate inflammation and may contribute to reducing the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases and other inflammatory conditions.

Conditions Improved by Probiotic Supplementation

Studies have investigated the potential of probiotics for various gastrointestinal conditions, including:

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) - Probiotics have shown promise in alleviating symptoms of IBS, such as abdominal pain, bloating, and irregular bowel habits. Specific strains, such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, have been studied for their effectiveness in managing IBS symptoms.

  • Diarrhoea and Constipation - Probiotics have demonstrated efficacy in preventing and treating diarrhoea, including antibiotic-associated and infectious diarrhoea. Additionally, specific probiotic strains may help promote regular bowel movements and relieve symptoms of constipation.

  • Bloating and Gas - For individuals struggling with bloating and excessive gas, probiotics may offer relief by promoting a healthier balance of gut bacteria and reducing the fermentation of undigested carbohydrates.

Probiotics for all?

Probiotics for Women's Health

Women's health concerns often extend beyond digestive issues, encompassing reproductive and urinary health as well. Probiotics can have specific benefits in these areas.

Specific Benefits for Women's Reproductive and Urinary Health

  • Preventing Vaginal Infections - Probiotics, particularly strains of Lactobacillus, are known to maintain the acidic environment of the vagina, which helps prevent the overgrowth of harmful bacteria and yeast infections.

  • Urinary Tract Health - Some research suggests that probiotics may help reduce the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) by inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the urinary tract.

In conclusion, the evidence for the effectiveness of probiotics for gut health and various digestive issues is great. By incorporating probiotic-rich foods or supplements into their diet, individuals can improve their overall well-being and mitigate the symptoms of gastrointestinal conditions. However, consulting with a healthcare professional before starting any new dietary regimen is essential, especially for those with underlying medical conditions or immunocompromised individuals.

Considerations for Different Life Stages

Our bodies undergo various changes as we journey through life, and our health needs evolve accordingly. Each stage presents unique considerations for maintaining gut health from infancy to old age. Probiotics, with their diverse benefits, play a crucial role in supporting overall well-being across different life stages.

Infancy and Childhood

Early life is a critical period for the development of the gut microbiome, which influences long-term health outcomes. During infancy, the gut is colonised by beneficial bacteria that contribute to immune function, digestion, and nutrient absorption. Breastfeeding, rich in prebiotics and maternal antibodies, fosters a healthy gut microbiome. However, in cases where breastfeeding is not possible, probiotic supplementation may help establish a balanced gut flora and reduce the risk of conditions such as colic.

As children grow, probiotics support immune function and digestive health. They can help alleviate common childhood gastrointestinal complaints like diarrhoea and constipation, often triggered by dietary changes or infections. Introducing probiotic-rich foods such as yoghurt and kefir into a child's diet can contribute to diverse and resilient gut microbiota.


Maintaining a balanced gut microbiome becomes increasingly important for overall health and well-being in adulthood. Factors such as stress, diet, medications, and environmental exposures can disrupt the delicate balance of gut bacteria, leading to digestive issues and compromised immune function. Probiotics offer a natural and effective means of restoring microbial equilibrium and supporting gut health.

One significant consideration for adults is the use of probiotics alongside antibiotics. While antibiotics are essential for treating bacterial infections, they can also disturb the gut microbiota, leading to side effects such as diarrhoea and gastrointestinal discomfort. Probiotic supplementation during and after antibiotic treatment can help avoid these adverse effects by restoring beneficial bacteria and supporting digestive function.


As we age, changes in diet, reduced physical activity, and changes in gastrointestinal function can impact the diversity of the gut microbiome. Older adults are more susceptible to constipation, inflammation, and infections, making gut health a priority for healthy ageing. Probiotics offer a safe and effective strategy for supporting digestive function, enhancing nutrient absorption, and bolstering immune defences in older people.

Emerging research suggests that certain probiotic strains may help improve bone density and cognitive function in older adults, offering potential therapeutic avenues for age-related health challenges.

Probiotics for Antibiotics

Antibiotics play a crucial role in treating bacterial infections. Still, they can disrupt the delicate balance of microorganisms in the gut, leading to antibiotic-associated side effects such as diarrhoea and gastrointestinal upset. These effects occur due to the damage of harmful, as well as beneficial, bacteria by antibiotics, allowing opportunistic pathogens to thrive and causing dysbiosis in the gut microbiome.

Countering Antibiotic-Associated Side Effects

Probiotics, commonly referred to as "friendly" or "good" bacteria, can help counteract the negative effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiome. By introducing beneficial strains of bacteria, probiotics help restore microbial diversity, strengthen the intestinal barrier, and inhibit the growth of harmful pathogens. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of probiotics in reducing the incidence and severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, particularly when administered concurrently with antibiotic therapy.

Supporting Gut Health During Antibiotic Treatment

In addition to alleviating gastrointestinal symptoms, probiotics can support overall gut health during antibiotic treatment. Probing the growth of beneficial bacteria and producing antimicrobial substances, probiotics help maintain a balanced microbial community, reducing the risk of antibiotic-resistant infections and supporting immune function.

When selecting probiotics for use alongside antibiotics, choosing strains resistant to the prescribed antibiotic and having demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials is essential. Speak to your doctor who is prescribing the antibiotics or your pharmacist, to suggest a strain of probiotics which will be resistant to the antibiotics.


Considering the diverse needs of individuals at different life stages and the challenges posed by antibiotic use, integrating probiotics into daily wellness routines can have significant benefits. Whether it's supporting digestive health, boosting immune function, or mitigating the effects of antibiotics, probiotics offer a natural and effective way to nurture the gut microbiome and promote overall well-being.

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Adil Naeem
Reviewed by Adil Naeem
Reviewed on 15.12.2023
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