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Proton pump inhibitors (PPI)

Dr Roger Henderson
Reviewed by Dr Roger HendersonReviewed on 13.10.2023 | 3 minutes read

If you have not heard of the term PPIs, then you may have heard of some common examples, such as omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole or rabeprazole. They are a class of medication used to treat heartburn and as protection if you are at an increased risk of stomach ulcers. They work by reducing the amount of stomach acid that your body produces. PPIs are usually taken by mouth as a tablet, capsule or liquid, however in hospital you may receive a one as an injection. Most PPIs require a prescription, but you can purchase esomeprazole from your pharmacy without a prescription after talking to a pharmacist. The most commonly seen of these is Nexium.

How does it work?

PPIs work by reducing the amount of acid produced in your stomach. This acid is produced by a type of cell in your stomach called parietal cells. These cells produce stomach acid through proton pumps, a necessary step in the digestion of food. By inhibiting these proton pumps, proton pump inhibitors (hence the name) reduce the amount of acid in your stomach. This means less acid can enter the oesophagus (food pipe) and cause symptoms such as irritation, heartburn and coughing. When used for stomach ulcers, the reduction in acid helps your stomach lining to heal.

PPIs should not be used to treat occasional heartburn as their effect builds up over time. They can take up to a week of daily use to get any benefit from them, so if you are looking for immediate relief from heartburn, antacids or Gaviscon maybe be better suited.

Who is it for?

Proton Pump Inhibitors can be used by adults over 18 to treat conditions such as heartburn and stomach ulcers, but are also used to protect the stomach against developing new ulcers. This is particularly for those people on NSAIDs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac). When used for treatment of a stomach ulcer, a PPI may be combined with an antibiotic medication as part of the eradication of H. pylori, a bacteria that often causes ulcers. PPIs are also used for other conditions where stomach acid suppression is necessary, such as oesophagitis, Barrett’s oesophagus and Zollinger Ellison syndrome. It can also be prescribed for children to treat these conditions, however this is done under close supervision of a doctor.

Should anybody not take it?

It is best not to take this medication if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding. It can be safe to do so but advice should be sought from your doctor before beginning treatment. This medication should also not be used if you have low magnesium, are at risk of developing osteoporosis, or have recently been suffering with diarrhoea. Furthermore, do not use PPIs if you have previously had an allergic reaction to another PPI.

Are there any side-effects?

As with all medications, there are side-effects, however most people do not experience them with PPIs. The common side-effects of PPIs include headaches, nausea and vomiting, constipation, wind and stomach pain. An important side-effect to be aware of is that PPIs may reduce your absorption of magnesium, which is used by your muscles and may result in you developing muscle cramps. It also may increase your risk of developing fractures as it can affect your calcium absorption which is necessary for bone strength. PPIs can also increase your risk of a bacterial infection of the gut called C.diff and result in diarrhoea that does not resolve after a few days. If these do occur, you should consult your doctor.

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Dr Roger Henderson
Reviewed by Dr Roger Henderson
Reviewed on 13.10.2023