Dandruff is caused by dead skin cells falling off your scalp which can be seen as white-grey flakes on your scalp, in your hair and sometimes on your clothes. It can also cause symptoms of an itchy scalp. It is very common and not linked to hair cleanliness although more flakes may build up with the less you wash your hair. Dandruff is a type of seborrhoeic dermatitis that also causes a red, greasy, flakey rash over the nose and cheeks.
In the majority of cases, dandruff can be treated at home. Extreme weather conditions, such as when hot, cold or dry may cause dandruff, and stress can worsen the condition in some people. Dandruff is not contagious.
If you are suffering from dandruff, we would recommend using an anti-dandruff shampoo regularly for one month. Your local pharmacist can advise you on which one to choose and how to use it.
As a dry scalp is the start of dandruff, moisturising the scalp is the basis of treatment. There are many dandruff treatment shampoos that can help to improve the hydration of the scalp, whilst gently cleansing and exfoliating the dead flaky skin. They should be used regularly to prevent dandruff.
Some people use oils to help hydrate the scalp alongside a shampoo treatment. Rubbing in olive oil or coconut oil will help to hydrate the scalp, and you'll also get nourished hair roots to improve overall hair health. Try to apply daily if your scalp is particularly dry, or at least around two to three times per week.
Dandruff usually presents as dry white flaky patches or debris on the scalp and hair, and possibly a dry powder on the shoulders of clothes. It doesn't usually cause redness. If your scalp has red or very irritated scaling, particularly around the back of the head or nape of the neck, you may have a different condition such as a fungal infection or psoriasis, so you should see your doctor to confirm diagnosis and suggest the right treatment.
You should book a routine visit with your doctor if you have used the anti-dandruff shampoo recommended by the pharmacist for one month and seen no improvement or if your scalp is red or sore.
The doctor will ask you about your medical history and examine your scalp in order to look for signs of other skin conditions or skin irritation that might be causing the dandruff symptoms, such as eczema.
You are fit for work if you have dandruff.
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