Lyme disease is a condition caused by a bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi , which is spread by an insect called a tick. (It is called Lyme disease after the American town where it was first described). The ticks bite an infected animal and then bite us. An infected tick often leaves a classic mark of Lyme disease: a distinctive circular rash, described as a bullseye on a dartboard. This rash may take up to a month to develop, and some don't get it at all. Anyone affected might feel unwell with a fever, muscle aches, headaches and lethargy.
If left untreated, Lyme disease can progress to cause multiple symptoms in many different parts of the body that last weeks or months after the initial infection.
There are three stages of Lyme disease:
Early local skin reaction – this happens 3 to 36 days after being bitten by an infected tick and causes the classical bullseye rash and – in about 1 in 3 cases – a flu-like illness for a few days.
Early disseminated disease, which can happen weeks or months afterwards. This includes joint problems such as pain and swelling (often in the knee), nerve inflammation, palpitations, dizziness and breathlessness.
Late disease. This can happen years later with many possible symptoms, including persisting joint problems, confusion, mood changes and memory problems, weakness and tiredness.
Ticks are small, spider-like creatures that feed on the blood of animals and humans. They are found in grasslands and woodlands, and sometimes even in your garden, and more commonly in southern England or the highlands of Scotland. Ticks cling on when someone or something brushes past them and they then bite you and start to feed on your blood. You may notice them once they have been feeding, as they swell up to little brown lumps.
They will drop off once they have finished their feed, but this can be days later. Ticks can transmit bacteria causing other diseases alongside Lyme disease, so be aware, especially in the UK and Europe. Simple self-help can go a long way, so after being out for a long walk, check yourself over for any little mites. Have a good look and feel, including places like the groin and hairlines and get a trusted companion to check less accessible areas. Always check your pets too - they like furry necks and floppy dogs' ears!
Not all ticks carry disease. If you have been bitten by a tick, or think you may have been bitten by a tick, watch out for signs that can indicate you need to see a doctor. If you have a rash that looks like a bullseye, you should take a photo and ask your doctor to take a look. Your doctor may prescribe you some antibiotic tablets or send you for a blood test to investigate further.
You are fit for work if you have been bitten by a tick. If you have more serious symptoms, you may need to see your doctor.
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and, if you are comfortable, examine you. Depending on the possible diagnosis, further tests such as blood may be carried out, or you may be referred to a specialist department. The doctor may prescribe medication such as antibiotics in stage one of the illness.
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